The year, 1955. Rosa Louise Parks, a black woman…, an African-American woman of color, boarded one of the Montgomery City Bus Lines’ buses.

After paying her fare, Rosa Parks took a seat in the rear of the bus… in the designated “colored” section of the bus.

When all of the seats in the “white”, section of the bus were occupied, the bus driver pursuant to (Chapter 6, Section 11, of the Montgomery City Code), which gave bus-drivers police powers for the racial assignment of seats, ordered Rosa to vacate…, to surrender her seat to a white passenger.

Rosa Parks refused to give-up her “SEAT”. She was arrested. This act of courage, in the “Jim-Crow”, 1955, Southern United States of America, ignited the flame that resulted in the year-long “Montgomery Bus Boycott”, and subsequently, the 1965 Civil Rights Act.

“Those who do not learn from the mistakes of history, are doomed to repeat them.”

Recently despite multiple sessions of relentless, contentious “grilling” by Republican members of the United States Senate’s Judiciary Committee, federal Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson…, on April 7, 2022, was the first black woman, to be confirmed by the United States Senate, as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

On June 30, 2022, Ketanji Brown Jackson, became the first black woman to be sworn in…. to take her “SEAT”, as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

Marvin V. Blake

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